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0001 Unswept Floor Mosaic of a Roman Dining Room. 5th Century. Musée de la Vigne et du Vin


Blake, Sarah. “In Manus: Pliny’s Letters and the Arts of Mastery.” Pages 89–107 in Roman Literary Cultures: Domestic Politics, Revolutionary Poetics, Civic Spectacle. Edited by A. Keith and J. Edmondson. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2011.


———“Now You See Them: Slaves and Other Objects as Elements of the Roman Master.” Helios 39.2 (2012): 193–211.


Bonar, Chance E.“Enslaved to God: Slavery and Divine Despotics in the Shepherd of Hermas.” PhD Dissertation, Harvard University, 2023.


Bruun, Christer. “Greek or Latin? The Owner’s Choice of Names for vernae in Rome.” Pages 19–42 in Roman Slavery and Roman Material Culture. Edited by Michelle George. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2013. 


Charles, Ronald. The Silencing of Slaves in Early Jewish and Christian Texts. London: Routledge, 2020.


Coogan, Jeremiah, Joseph A. Howley, and Candida R. Moss, eds. Writing, Enslavement, and Power in the Roman Mediterranean, 100 BCE–300 CE. Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming.


Elder, Nicholas. Gospel Media. Reading, Writing and Circulating Jesus Traditions. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2024. 


Flexsenhar III, Michael. Christians in Caesar’s Household. The Emperor’s Slaves in the Makings of Christianity. Inventing Christianity Vol. 1. University Park: Penn State Press, 2019.


Fuentes, Marisa J. Dispossessed Lives: Enslaved Women, Violence, and the Archive. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.


Geue, Tom. “Rush Job: Slavery and Brevity in the Early Roman Principate.” Cambridge Classical Journal 68 (2022): 83–111.


Goodspeed, Edgar J. The Meaning of Ephesians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1933. 


Haines-Eitzen, Kim. “‘Girls Trained in Beautiful Writing’: Female Scribes in Roman Antiquity and Early Christianity.” JECS 6.4 (1998): 629-646.

———Guardians of Letters: Literacy, Power and the Transmitters of Early Christian Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.


Harley-McGowan, Felicity. “The Alexamenos Graffito.” Pages 105–140 in The Reception of Jesus in the First Three Centuries. Edited by Chris Keith, Helen Bond, Christine Jacobi, and Jens Schröter. London: T&T Clark, 2019.


Harrill, J. Albert, Slaves in the New Testament: Literary, Social, and Moral Dimensions. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2006.


Harrison, P. N. “Onesimus and Philemon.” ATR 32 (1950): 288–94.


Hartman, Saidiya. Scenes of Subjection: Terror, Slavery, and Self-Making in Nineteenth-Century America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. 

———“Venus in Two Acts.” Small Axe 12.2 (2008): 1–14.

———Lose Your Mother: A Journey Along the Atlantic Slave Route. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2008.


Head, Peter M. “Named Letter-Carriers Among the Oxyrhynchus Papyri.” JSNT 31.3 (2009): 279–299.

———“Tychicus and the Colossian Christians: A Reconsideration of the Text of Colossians 4:8.” Pages 303–15 in Texts and Traditions: Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott. Edited by Peter Doble and Jeffrey Kloha. Leiden: Brill, 2014. 

———“‘Witnesses between You and Us’: The Role of the Letter-Carriers in 1 Clement.” Pages 477-93 in Studies on the Text of the New Testament and Early Christianity: Essays in Honour of Michael W. Holmes on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday. Edited by Daniel M. Gurtner, Juan Hernández, and Paul Foster. Leiden: Brill, 2015.

———“Onesimus the Letter Carrier and the Initial Reception of Paul’s Letter to Philemon.“ JTS 71.2 (2020): 628–656.


Heilmann, Jan. Lesen in Antike und frühem Christentum: Kulturgeschichtliche, philologische sowie kognitionswissenschaftliche Perspektiven und deren Bedeutung für die neutestamentliche Exegese. Tübingen: Narr Francke Attempto, 2021.


Horn, Friedrich Wilhelm. “Stephanas und sein Haus – die erste christliche Hausgemeinde in der Achaia: ihre Stellung in der Kommunikation zwischen Paulus und der korinthischen Gemeinde.” Pages 83–98 in Paulus und die antike Welt: Beiträge zur zeit- und religionsgechichtlichen Erforschung des paulinischen Christentumes: Festgabe für Dietrich-Alex Koch zum 65. Geburtstag. Edited by David C. Bienert et al. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008.


Howley, Joseph A.“Reading in Ancient Rome.” Pages 15–27 in Further Reading. Edited by Matthew Rubery and Leah Price. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020.


Keith, Chris. “‘In My Own Hand’: Grapho-Literacy and the Apostle Paul,” Bib 89 (2008): 39-58.


Knox, John. Philemon Among the Letters of Paul, A New View of its Place and Importance. New York: Abingdon, 1959.


Laes, Christian. “Lectors in the Latin West: The Epigraphical Evidence (c. 300-800).” Arctos 53 (2019): 83–127.


Lampe, Peter. From Paul to Valentinus: Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries, trans. Michael Steinhauser. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2003.


Larsen, Matthew and  Mark Letteney. “Christians and the Codex: Generic Materiality and Early Gospel Traditions.” JECS 27.3 (2019): 383–415.


Last, Richard. “The Neighborhood (vicus) of the Corinthian ekklēsia: Beyond Family-Based Descriptions of the First Urban Christ-Believers.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 38.4 (2017): 399–425.


Lightfoot, Joseph Barber. The Apostolic Fathers. Volume 2. London and New York: Macmillan, 1885. 


Marchal, Joseph A. “The Usefulness of an Onesimus: The Sexual Use of Slaves and Paul’s Letter to Philemon.” JBL 130.4 (2011): 749-770.


Martin, Clarice J. “Womanist Interpretations of the New Testament: The Quest for Holistic and Inclusive Translation and Interpretation.” Pages 19–41 in I Found God in Me: A Womanist Biblical Hermeneutics Reader. Edited by Mitzi J. Smith. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2015. 


Meggitt, Justin. Paul, Poverty, and Survival. Studies of the New Testament and Its World. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1998.


Mitchell, Margaret M. “New Testament Envoys in the Context of Greco-Roman Diplomatic and Epistolary Conventions: The Example of Timothy and Titus.” JBL 111.4 (1992): 641–662.


Moss, Candida R. Ancient Christian Martyrdom. Yale Anchor Reference Library. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. 

———“The Secretary: Enslaved Workers, Stenography, and the Production of Early Christian Literature.” JTS 74.1 (2023): 20–56.

 ———“What Large Letters: Invisible Labor, Invisible Disabilities, and Paul’s Use of Scribes.” Pages 105-121 in Divided Worlds? Interdisciplinary and Contemporary Challenges in Classics and New Testament Studies. Edited by Tat-Siong Benny Liew, Caroline Johnson Hodge and Timothy Joseph. Semeia Studies. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature Press, 2023. 

———God’s Ghostwriters: Enslaved Christians and the Making of the Bible. New York: Little Brown, 2024.


Muddiman, John. “The Reader of Mark 13:14B as the (Re-)Interpreter of Apocalyptic.” Pages 170–82 in Revealed Wisdom: Studies in Apocalyptic in Honour of Christopher Rowland. Edited by John Ashton. Leiden: Brill, 2014. 


Osiek, Carolyn. Philippians, Philemon. ANTC. Nashville: Abingdon, 2000.


Petersen, Hans. “The numeral praenomina of the Romans.” Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 93 (1962): 347–354.


Preisigke, Friedrich. Namenbuch. Heidelberg: Selbstverlag des Herausgebers, 1922.


Reay, Brendon. “Agriculture, Writing, and Cato’s Aristocratic Self-Fashioning.” Classical Antiquity 24.2 (2005): 331–61. 


Reece, Steve.  Paul’s Large Letters: Paul’s Autographic Subscriptions in the Light of Ancient Epistolary Conventions. LSNT 561; London: T&T Clark, 2018..


Richards, E. Randolph. The Secretary in the Letters of Paul. WUNT II/42. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1991.

———Paul and First-Century Letter Writing. Secretaries, Composition and Collection. Westmont, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2004.


Roller, Otto. Das Formular der paulinischen Briefe: Ein Beitrag zur Lehre vom antiken Briefe. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1933. (14-23, 295-300) 


Schoedel, William R. Ignatius of Antioch: A Commentary on the Letters of Ignatius of Antioch. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1985. 


Schott, Jeremy. The History of the Church: A New Translation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2019.


Schwaller, Tyler M. “Picturing the Enslaved Christ: Philippians 2:6–8, Alexamenos, and a Mockery of Masculinity.” JECH 11.1 (2021): 38–65. 


Schwartz, Eduard. Eusebius Kirchesngeschichte. Repr.; Berlin: De Gruyter, 2021.


Shaner, Katherine A. Enslaved Leadership in Early Christianity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018.


Shiell, William David. Reading Acts: The Lector and the Early Christian Audience. Leiden: Brill 2004.


Smallwood, Stephanie. Saltwater Slavery: A Middle Passage from Africa to American Diaspora. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007. 

———“The Politics of the Archive and History’s Accountability to the Enslaved.” History of the Present 6.2 (2016): 117–32. 


Snyder, Julia. “Acts of Peter.” e-Clavis: Christian Apocrypha. Accessed 1 March 2024.


Solin, Heikki. Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum: Die griechischen Personennamen in Rom. Volume 2. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1982.

———Die stadtrömischen Sklavennamen: Ein Namenbuch I-III.  Forschungen zur antiken Sklaverei, Beiheft 2. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1996.

———“Griechische und römische Sklavennamen. Eine vergleichende Untersuchung.” Pages 307-30 in Fünfzig Jahre Forschungen zur antiken Sklaverei an der Mainzer Akademie, 1950-2000. Miscellanea zum Jubilaeum. Edited by Heinz Bellen and Heinz Heinen. Stuttgart: Steiner, 2001.


Solin, Heikki, and Marja Itkonen-Kaila, eds. Graffiti del Palatino I: Paedagogium. Helsinki: Acta Instituti Romani Finlandiae, 1966. 


Syme, Ronald. “‘Donatus’ and the Like.” Historia 28 (1978): 588–603.

———“Roman Papers III.” Ed. A. R. Birley. Oxford (1984): 1105–1119.


Wellhausen, Julius.  Einleitung in die drei ersten Evangelien. Berlin: Reimer, 1905. 

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